История возникновения микромозаики

Широкий Александр Сергеевич

 

История возникновения микромозаики

Существует множество видов техник декорирования изделий. Каждая техника имеет свой, неповторимый образ. Данная статья посвящена истории микромозайки.

Мозаика (франц. mosaïque, итал. mosaico, от лат. musivum, буквально — посвященное музам), изображение или узор, выполненные из однородных или различных по материалу частиц (камень, смальта, керамическая плитка и пр.), один из основных видов монументально-декоративного искусства. Мозаика употребляется также для украшения произведений декоративно-прикладного искусства и реже — для создания станковых картин.[1] Мозаика – один из старейших видов декора, и древний вид изобразительного искусства. Эта техника была распространена уже в эпоху эллинизма и Древнего Рима, а первые экземпляры мозаики датированы примерно 3 в. до н.э. 

Мозаикой выкладывались стены и полы вилл и дворцов. Сюжеты были самые разнообразные – от орнамента до сложных сцен, изображающих борющихся атлетов, охоту, танцы, театральные маски и многое другое. На сегодняшний день существует несколько видов итальянской мозаики: венецианская, римская и флорентийская. Эта художественная техника включает в себя множество разновидностей, одной из которых является микромозаика.

Для дальнейшего раскрытия понятия потребуется понимание терминов,  используемых в мозаичном деле.

При создании микромозайки используют смальту. Смальта — цветное искусственное стекло, изготовленное по специальным технологиям выплавки с добавлением оксидов металлов, равно как и кусочки различной формы, полученные из него методом колки или резки.[3]

 Тессеры—  элементы мозаики из смальты, преимущественно прямоугольной формы.[2]

Дроты — элементы мозаики круглого сечения.

Таким образом, микромозаика — это особая форма мозаичного искусства, при которой используют необыкновенно малые тессеры и дроты из смальты, для набора чрезвычайно сложных и детальных изображений. В некоторых случаях их число доходит до 5 000 на квадратный дюйм (2,54 х 2,54 см). Конечный продукт вощили и полировали, и готовое украшение было гораздо более гладким и утонченным на вид, чем обычная мозаика. Казалось, что это плавная картина без видимых интервалов.

Создание микромозаики

К появлению и развитию микромозаики привело то, что после постройки Собора Святого Петра в 1600 г., возник кризис: все картины в интерьере Базилики от Караваджо, Рафаэля, Guercino, Domenichino, Пуссена, Reni и многих других известных живописцев XV - XVII столетий начали разрушаться от сырости. Начался отчаянный поиск долговечного материала, с помощью которого можно было бы воспроизводить картины. Видя, что архитектурная мозаика сохранила свой цвет и первозданную прочность, Папы Римский Грегори XIII, 1572-1585 и Урбано VIII, 1623-1644 решили воспроизвести все картины в интерьере Базилики в мозаике.[8] Однако традиционная смальта была блестящей, и имела лишь немногочисленные оттенки, что не позволяло воссоздать тонкие переходы света и тени, и должен был быть найден такой материал, чья поверхность была не рефлексивна, устойчива к разрушению и имела свойства копирования живописи. Кроме того, чтобы добиться сходства с полотнами, должны были быть созданы тысячи оттенков цвета.[6]

      После экспериментов, к концу XVII подходящий состав для тессер был найден. Алессио Маттиоли, талантливый владелец стеклоплавильной мастерской, экспериментируя со стеклом Madritinte, а именно цветной стеклянной пастой содержащей высокий процент красителей, что итальянцы называют "Smalti Filati", получил материал — податливое непрозрачное вещество, которое не было ни блестящим, ни хрупким, как прежняя стеклянная мозаика. Он выглядел как непрозрачная глазурь или матовая смальта, он не блестел на свету, и имел очень красивый оттенок, сравнимый с цветом кожи человека, и очень близкий к тому, что встречавшемуся на масляных полотнах собора. Тогда он продолжил эксперименты с целью создания такой палитры, которая позволила бы передать любой из оттенков живописных запрестольных образов. Расплавленная масса затем "прялась" или оттягивалась с помощью пинцетов в нити желательной толщины. Техника "Smalti filati" дала возможность ремесленникам изготавливать кусочки в маленьком масштабе и, в конечном счете, даже производить саму "миниатюрную мозаику".

      К 1770 большинство картин уже было успешно воспроизведено в мозаике. Первоначально, на больших картинах, tesserae были квадратной или прямоугольной формы, но в конечном итоге методы были усовершенствованы так, что кусочки были собраны и выглядели почти так, как мазки кисти. Мастера изобрели новый метод - кусочки смальты разных оттенков смешивали вместе, а потом топили на открытом огне, вытягивая с помощью пинцета в filati любой толщины, от менее чем 1 мм (хоть с нить) до 4 мм, длиной 30 - 50 см. Нитям давали остыть, после чего их разрезали на крошечные частички геометрических форм — круги, квадратики, прямоугольники и другие фигуры.

         По мере совершенствования этой методики к началу XVIII в. был достигнут такой феноменальный прогресс, что мозаики стали совершенно неотличимы от масляных оригиналов. Это позволило завершить замену живописных полотен мозаиками, которые точно передавали тончайшие цветовые нюансы. И по сей день большинство посетителей собора Святого Петра думают, что смотрят на живопись. Приблизительно в 1775 г., некоторые художники собора Св. Петра начали применять эту технику, и делать вещи, используя исключительно маленькие tesserae. Они и были первыми из того, что сегодня мы называем "микромозаиками". Благодаря этому искусству Мастерская мозаики Ватикана стала всемирно известной.

Популярность

В период с 1800 по 1889 год итальянских ювелиров вдохновляли украшения, найденные при раскопках древнеримских, египетских, древнегреческих и этрусских захоронений, которые привели к возникновению неоклассицизма.  Для ювелирных изделий, выполненных в подобном стиле, возник термин Archaeological Revival - «Археологическое возрождение».

Раскопки в 1808—1814 годах в Помпеях велись еще при Мюрате, который в то время был королем Неаполитанского королевства. Они очень интересовали его жену (сестру Наполеона) Каролину.[2]

           

Рисунок 1. Парюр с микромозайкой, подаренный Наполеоном супруге Марии — Луизе

 

Найти примеры микромозаики можно в украшениях, начиная с III в. до н. э., хотя пик их популярности — с середины XVIII в., в период под названием Grand Tour Era. Молодые люди из богатых европейских семей путешествовали по Европе, изучая достопримечательности разных культур. Из поездок привозили сувениры с микромозаичным изображением исторических мест или отправляли их родным в качестве открытки с видом. Особенно популярны были итальянские руины. Эта тенденция продолжается по сей день.

 

Рисунок 2. XIX в. Брошь с микромозаикой, жемчугом и рубинами. Италия.

Наибольшую популярность микромозаика получила именно в этот период, во многом благодаря  Фортунато Пио Кастеллани (1794-1865), который расширил диапазон предметов.  Его работы были выполнены в "археологическом стиле", копируя римские и Ранние христианские стенные мозаики. Этому даже подражали живописцы по фарфору, которые рисовали слабые линии просвечивающие через их работу, чтобы сделать изделие похожим на микромозайку. Изделия Кастеллани отличаются тонкостью исполнения и хорошим вкусом. Их сегодня можно купить на аукционах.

Лучшим же подарком из Италии для женщины, живущей в викторианскую эпоху, был браслет, брошь или серьги (а лучше - все вместе), сделанные в «археологическом стиле». Микромозаика - одно из направлений этого стиля.[4]

Вслед за высокой популярностью последовал быстрый упадок вследствие смены тенденций моды, войн и множества других факторов. Секрет производства микромозаичных изделий был утерян везде, кроме Ватикана, который и посей день хранит его в тайне.

 

Рисунок 3. Кольцо изготовленое фирмой Le Sibille

В наши дни существуют  несколько фирм, которые попробовали воссоздать технологию и добились хорошего результата, среди них Dolce&Gabbana и Le Sibille.[5]

 

Литература

  1. URL: http://la-gatta-ciara.livejournal.com/234379.html (дата обращения 07.04.14)
  2. URL: http://www.livemaster.ru/topic/331397-mikromozaika-19-veka-yuvelirnoe-chudo (дата обращения 07.04.14)
  3. URL:  http://www.antik-invest.ru/blog/?page_id=863 – Римская мозайка, флорентийская мозайка. Техника миллефлиори. (дата обращения 07.04.14)
  4. URL:  http://mosaic-hobby.blogspot.ru/2011/04/blog-post_21.html - Что такое микромозаика? (дата обращения 07.04.14)
  5.  URL: http://mo3aika.livejournal.com/14847.html - Микромозаика из смальты и драг.камней по технологии 8 века (дата обращения 07.04.14)
  6. URL:  http://www.stihi.ru/2012/02/28/8631 - История происхождения итальянской микро мозаики/Лавандин,/2012 Свидетельство о публикации №112022808631 (дата обращения 07.04.14)
  7. URL:  http://www.antik-forum.ru/forum/showthread.php?t=1597 –Антик-форум. Римская и флорентийская мозаика, смальта (дата обращения 07.04.14)
  8. URL: http://greekroman.ru/gallery/mus_vatican.htm - Музеи Ватикана (исторический очерк) (дата обращения 07.04.14)
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0 #1341 Emilia 2018-09-12 23:02
In the new millennium corporate video production isn't any less important and is
alswo most likely more essential laptop or computer ever was,
although challenging economic times have witnessed budgets
for a few video projects being squeezed as priority
spending for companies is among the most norm. The company that you
just select should be able to give you highly creative, interactive, and polished
corporate video to market yor brand successfully. Use it being an online marketing video and
sed it in your clients for better promotion.

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0 #1340 Steffen 2018-09-12 18:53
Actually, your partner's roving eye may be a good sign. The involving
failure is just a negative judgment of your experiences.

A primary Fear of Success could be the fear of accountability.


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